Failed to load ApplicationContext for JUnit test of Spring controller

As mentioned in duscusion: WEB-INF is not really a part of class path. If you use a common template such as maven, use src/main/resources or src/test/resources to place the app-context.xml into. Then you can use 'classpath:'.

Place your config file into src/main/resources/app-context.xml and use code

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(locations = "classpath:app-context.xml")
public class PersonControllerTest {
...
}

or you can make yout test context with different configuration of beans.

Place your config file into src/test/resources/test-app-context.xml and use code

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@ContextConfiguration(locations = "classpath:test-app-context.xml")
public class PersonControllerTest {
...
}

If you are using Maven, add the below config in your pom.xml:

<build>
    <testResources>
                <testResource>
                    <directory>src/main/webapp</directory>
                </testResource>
    </testResources>
</build>

With this config, you will be able to access xml files in WEB-INF folder. From Maven POM Reference: The testResources element block contains testResource elements. Their definitions are similar to resource elements, but are naturally used during test phases.

There can be multiple root causes for this exception. For me, my mockMvc wasn't getting auto-configured. I solved this exception by using @WebMvcTest(MyController.class) at the class level. This annotation will disable full auto-configuration and instead apply only configuration relevant to MVC tests.

An alternative to this is, If you are looking to load your full application configuration and use MockMVC, you should consider @SpringBootTest combined with @AutoConfigureMockMvc rather than @WebMvcTest

Solved by adding the following dependency into pom.xml file :

<dependency>
        <groupId>com.h2database</groupId>
        <artifactId>h2</artifactId>
        <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>